The standardized ornamental type of columns, with their associated bases, capitals, pedestals, entablatures. The standardized ornamental types of columns are categorized into three main orders: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. Each order has its own distinct features, including column shape, base, capital, pedestal, and entablature.
1. Doric Order:- Column Shape: Doric columns have a simple, sturdy design, with a fluted shaft that tapers upward and stands directly on the stylobate (base).- Base: The Doric order typically lacks a separate base. Instead, the column rests directly on the stylobate or platform.- Capital: The Doric capital is relatively plain, consisting of a circular cushion-like element known as an echinus, topped by a square abacus.- Pedestal: Doric columns usually lack an individual pedestal and rest directly on the stylobate.- Entablature: The entablature of the Doric order consists of three main parts - the architrave (bottom horizontal beam), the frieze (middle decorative band), and the cornice (top projecting element).
2. Ionic Order:- Column Shape: Ionic columns are more slender than Doric columns and feature flutes that are more widely spaced. They typically stand on a base.- Base: The Ionic order incorporates a distinct base, consisting of a series of stacked moldings and profiles.- Capital: The Ionic capital is characterized by its scroll-shaped volutes (spiral elements) on each side, connected by a curved section known as the echinus. Above the volutes is a square abacus.- Pedestal: Ionic columns are usually placed on individual pedestals, enhancing their height and presence.- Entablature: The Ionic entablature follows a similar structure to the Doric order, with an architrave, frieze, and cornice. However, the frieze often contains relief carvings or bas-reliefs.
3. Corinthian Order:- Column Shape: Corinthian columns are the most slender and ornate of the three orders, often featuring more decorative details.- Base: Corinthian columns typically have a base similar to the Ionic order, consisting of stacked moldings and profiles.- Capital: The Corinthian capital is the most elaborate, characterized by intricate acanthus leaves surrounding a bell-shaped echinus. Above the capital is a square abacus.- Pedestal: Corinthian columns are often placed on individual pedestals, adding grandeur and height.- Entablature: The Corinthian entablature follows the same structure as the Ionic and Doric orders - architrave, frieze, and cornice. The frieze is often adorned with elaborate carvings or sculptural reliefs.
These standardized ornamental types of columns, with their associated bases, capitals, pedestals, and entablatures, have been widely used throughout classical and neoclassical architecture. They continue to be employed today for their aesthetic appeal and historical significance.